1. Defined with Work Styles of employee engagement. (O*NET)

2. Based on a study of newly-hired employees.
Chang, E. and Hancock, K. (2003), Role stress and role ambiguity in new nursing graduates in Australia. Nursing & Health Sciences, 5: 155–163.

3. From a Meta Analysis of employee engagement.
Harter, James K.; Schmidt, Frank L.; Hayes, Theodore L. Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol 87(2), Apr 2002, 268-279.

Spare Change

1. The O*NET® Content Model.

2. Based on a Personnel Psychology article.
Werner, J. M. and Bolino, M. C. (1997), Explaining U.S. Courts of Appeals Decisions Involving Performance Appraisal: Accuracy, Fairness, and Validation. Personnel Psychology, 50: 1–24.

Employee Evaluation Phrases

1. Being overlooked is more harmful to employees' engagement than receiving negative feedback. Based on a GALLUP article.